TeX e LaTeX


  • PhD Stuff:
  • Manuals, Documents & Advanced Examples
  • Feynman Graphs
  • Example and needed files to draw Feynman graphs using the feynmf or the feynmp package. You need to have the package and the respective/corresponding extensions in the same folder/directory as your source file.

  • Crazy TEX
    • The following piece of code is simply amazingly… obfuscated! try guessing what it is, and then compile it using a TeX compiler and see the result (and your jaw hit the desk you are sitting at).

      \let~\catcode~`76~`A13~`F1~`j00~`P2jdefA71F~`7113jdefPALLF
      PA''FwPA;;FPAZZFLaLPA//71F71iPAHHFLPAzzFenPASSFthP;A$$FevP
      A@@FfPARR717273F737271P;ADDFRgniPAWW71FPATTFvePA**FstRsamP
      AGGFRruoPAqq71.72.F717271PAYY7172F727171PA??Fi*LmPA&&71jfi
      Fjfi71PAVVFjbigskipRPWGAUU71727374 75,76Fjpar71727375Djifx
      :76jelse&U76jfiPLAKK7172F71l7271PAXX71FVLnOSeL71SLRyadR@oL
      RrhC?yLRurtKFeLPFovPgaTLtReRomL;PABB71 72,73:Fjif.73.jelse
      B73:jfiXF71PU71 72,73:PWs;AMM71F71diPAJJFRdriPAQQFRsreLPAI
      I71Fo71dPA!!FRgiePBt'el@ lTLqdrYmu.Q.,Ke;vz vzLqpip.Q.,tz;
      ;Lql.IrsZ.eap,qn.i. i.eLlMaesLdRcna,;!;h htLqm.MRasZ.ilk,%
      s$;z zLqs'.ansZ.Ymi,/sx ;LYegseZRyal,@i;@ TLRlogdLrDsW,@;G
      LcYlaDLbJsW,SWXJW ree @rzchLhzsW,;WERcesInW qt.'oL.Rtrul;e
      doTsW,Wk;Rri@stW aHAHHFndZPpqar.tridgeLinZpe.LtYer.W,:jbye
  • TEX and HTML: Putting Math on the Web
  • The W3C recommended way to put math on the web is via MathML. So, here are some useful links:

  • Resources on the Web
  • Mac® (OS X)
    • The MacTeX Distribution
    • TEX on Mac OS X
    • TeXShop
    • For the Mac keyboard: \usepackage[applemac]{inputenc}. This should allow you to use accents and other keyboard combinations without having to type the [La]TeX command explicitly.
  • Windows®
  • More to come…
    • Ugly PDF documents: Ever wondered why your PDF files generated from ps2pdf are ugly as hell? LinuxLab has an article on how to fix this. Put briefly, simply add \usepackage[T1]{fontenc} and \usepackage{ae} to the header of your LATEX[2e] file and run the command dvips with the option -Ppdf. The output from ps2pdf should now look like the original PS file.
    • Font Substitution: To get a better output for pdf files substitute the fonts with \usepackage{lmodern} or, if you do not have the lm fonts installed:
      \usepackage{mathptmx}% instead of package times
      \usepackage[scaled=0.9]{helvet} % or [scaled=0.92], if you like
      \usepackage{courier}
    • PsTricks: The powerful PostScript package and PSTricks and PDF
    • Presentations: If you’re into doing your presentations using [LA]TEX, be sure to check out this page and have some fun. Also, do not loose the LaTeX Beamer page! It’s a very nice piece of code.😉
    • HyperRef Manual: Very useful package to implement with the above one. It’s manual can be found here. (A not-so-random link. >;-)
    • TEX for the Impatient: This book used to be published by Addison-Wesley, now it’s freely available here.
    • [LA]TEX and PowerPoint (for Windows® users): TEXPoint.
    • “Livrinho”, i.e, booklets: livrinho/booklets.
    • Hevea: hevea is a simple LATEX to HTML converter.
    • OperaShow and Math on the Web Take a look at the links below and try it out!
    • Typical preamble: Usually, most of my LaTeX2e preambles are the same, and they look like the following.
      %%
      % BeGiN
      %%
      \documentclass[11pt,letterpaper]{article}
      %%
      \usepackage[letterpaper,dvips,body={8in,11in},vmargin={1cm,2cm},hmargin=2cm,head=1cm]{geometry}
      \usepackage[dvips,usenames]{color}
      \usepackage[american]{babel}
      \usepackage[latin1]{inputenc}
      \usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
      \usepackage{ae}
      \usepackage{aecompl}
      %\usepackage{pslatex}
      \usepackage{textcomp} % some special symbols...
      \usepackage{textfit}  % commands \scaletoheight{height}{text} and \scaletowidth{width}{text}
      \usepackage{xspace}
      \usepackage[dvips]{graphicx}
      \usepackage{latexsym}
      \usepackage{amsmath,amsfonts,amstext,amssymb,amsbsy,amsopn,amsthm,eucal}
      \usepackage{yfonts}[1998/10/03]
      \usepackage{dsfont}
      \usepackage{wasysym}
      \usepackage{wrapfig}
      \usepackage[numbers]{natbib}       % configuração das referências bibliográficas
      \usepackage{array}                 % recursos extras de tabelas e alinhamentos
      \usepackage{setspace}              % configuração do espaço entre linhas
      \usepackage{indentfirst}           % indentação para o 1o parágrafo das seções
      \usepackage{tabularx}              % tabelas com largura de colunas variáveis
      \usepackage{caption2}              % configuração para legendas
      \usepackage{enumerate}             % recursos extras para listas numeradas
      \usepackage{psfrag}                % texto LaTeX em figuras EPS
      \usepackage{sectsty}               % configuração dos títulos, subtítulos, etc ...
      \usepackage{txfonts}               % conjunto de fontes postscript
      \usepackage[ps2pdf]{hyperref}      % troca as referências cruzadas por links
      \usepackage[normalem]{ulem}
      \usepackage{url}
      \newcommand\email{\begingroup \urlstyle{tt}\Url}
      \urldef{\het}\url{www.het.brown.edu}
      \urldef{\danieldf}{\email}{danieldf@het.brown.edu}
      %%
      % \usepackage{palatino}
      % \usepackage{newcent}
      % \usepackage{bookman}
      %%
      \usepackage{fancyhdr}
      \pagestyle{fancy}
      \fancypagestyle{plain}{%
      \fancyhf{} % clear all header and footer fields
      \fancyfoot[C]{\bfseries\thepage} % except the center
      \renewcommand{\headrulewidth}{0pt}
      \renewcommand{\footrulewidth}{0pt}}
      \renewcommand{\sectionmark}[1]{\markboth{\thesection.\  #1}{}}
      \renewcommand{\sectionmark}[1]{\markright{\thesubsection.\ #1}}
      \renewcommand{\headrulewidth}{0.5pt}
      \newcommand{\helv}{%
      \fontfamily{phv}\fontseries{b}\fontsize{9}{11}\selectfont}
      \fancyhf{}
      \fancyhead[LE,RO]{\helv{\footnotesize \thepage}}
      \fancyhead[LO]{\helv{\footnotesize \rightmark}}
      \fancyhead[RE]{\helv{\footnotesize \leftmark}}
      %%
      \begin{document}
      %
      \bibliographystyle{hplain}
      \bibliography{bibliography}
      %%
      \end{document}
      %%
      % EnD
      %%
    • Also, I have a couple of personal definitions. Here are them (somethings are useful, several are not; these files are soOo old…):
      % math.tex
      % Spaces definitions, Requires AMSmath
      
      \newcommand{\cont}[1]{\ensuremath{\text{\rsfs C\/}^{#1}\xspace}}
      \newcommand{\cic}{\ensuremath{\text{\rsfs C\/}^{\infty}_{\text{c}}\xspace}}
      \newcommand{\Matrix}[2]{\ensuremath{\text{\rsfs M}_{#1}(\mathbb{#2})}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Cliff}[3]{\ensuremath{\text{\rsfs C}_{#1,#2}(\mathbb{#3})}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\ctor}{\ensuremath{\text{\rsfs C}_{3,1}(\mathbb{R})}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\cfc}{\ensuremath{\text{\rsfs C}_{4}(\mathbb{C})}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\mfr}{\ensuremath{\text{\rsfs M}_{4}(\mathbb{R})}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\mfc}{\ensuremath{\text{\rsfs M}_{4}(\mathbb{C})}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\M}{\ensuremath{\text{{\rsfs M}}\xspace}}
      \newcommand{\N}{\ensuremath{\text{{\rsfs N}}\xspace}}
      \newcommand{\Alg}[1]{\ensuremath{\text{\rsfs A}\xspace(\mathds{#1})\xspace}}
      \newcommand{\Lin}[2]{\ensuremath{\text{\rsfs L}\xspace(\mathds{#1},\mathds{#2})\xspace}}
      
      % Operadores
      
      \DeclareMathOperator{\sgn}{sgn}
      \DeclareMathOperator{\tr}{tr}
      \DeclareMathOperator{\diag}{diag}
      \DeclareMathOperator{\T}{\mathds{T}}
      \DeclareMathOperator{\dop}{d\!}
      \DeclareMathOperator{\Ai}{Ai}
      \DeclareMathOperator{\Aut}{Aut}
      \DeclareMathOperator{\Res}{Res}
      \DeclareMathOperator{\End}{End}
      \newcommand{\Hop}{\ensuremath{\hat{\!\!\!\!\!\text{\rsfs H}}}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Cop}{\ensuremath{\text{\bigrsfs C}}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Top}{\ensuremath{\text{\bigrsfs T}}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\varsqrt}[1]{\ensuremath{\sqrt{#1{\,}}}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\conv}[2]{\ensuremath{{#1}\ast{#2}}\xspace}
      %%% \vec %%% \def\coco{\mathaccent''017E } $\coco v$
      \newcommand{\accentovetor}{%
        \makebox[0cm][c]{%
        \raisebox{-0.53\baselineskip}{\ensuremath{\vec{}}}}}
      %
      \newcommand{\Bvec}[1]{\ensuremath{#1\makebox[0cm][r]{\accentovetor\ }}}
      %%%
      % Texto reduzido
      
      \newcommand{\pos}{\ensuremath{e^{+}}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\ele}{\ensuremath{e^{-}}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Einstein}{\emph{Einstein}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Cartan}{\emph{{\'E}. Cartan}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Cauchy}{\emph{Cauchy}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Hilbert}{\emph{Hilbert}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Lagrange}{\emph{Lagrange}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Hamilton}{\emph{Hamilton}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Poisson}{\emph{Poisson}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Poincare}{\emph{Poincar{\'e}}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Friedmann}{\emph{Friedmann}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Schwarzschild}{\emph{Schwarzschild}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Palatini}{\emph{Palatini}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Lorentz}{\emph{Lorentz}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Euler}{\emph{Euler}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Bianchi}{\emph{Bianchi}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Kerr}{\emph{Kerr}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Schwarzchild}{\emph{Schwarzchild}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Stoke}{\emph{Stoke}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Godel}{\emph{G{\"o}del}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Tolman}{\emph{Tolman}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Bondi}{\emph{Bondi}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\Killing}{\emph{Killing}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\st}{\ensuremath{{}^{\text{st}}}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\nd}{\ensuremath{{}^{\text{nd}}}\xspace}
      \newcommand{\ord}{\ensuremath{{}^{\text{th}}}\xspace}
      
      % Theorem-like structures
      % Portuguese
      %\newtheorem{teo}{Teorema}[chapter]
      %\newtheorem{lem}[teo]{Lema}
      %\newtheorem{cor}[teo]{Corol{\'a}rio}
      %\newtheorem{prop}[teo]{Proposi{\c c}{\~a}o}
      %\newtheorem*{defin}{Defini{\c c}{\~a}o}
      %\newtheorem*{notac}{Nota{\c c}{\~a}o}
      % Elnglish
      \newtheorem{thm}{Theorem}[section]
      \newtheorem{lemm}[thm]{Lemma}
      \newtheorem{cor}[thm]{Corolary}
      \newtheorem{prop}[thm]{Proposition}
      \newtheorem*{conjec}{Conjecture}
      \newtheorem{deff}[thm]{Definition}
      \newtheorem*{notat}{Notation}
      \newtheorem*{note}{Note}
      %
      %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
      %%
      %% Definition for a slash over a letter
      %%
      %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
      %
      \newcommand{\paslash}{\ensuremath \raisebox{0.025cm}{\slash}\hspace{-0.25cm}\partial\/}
      \newcommand{\dfrakslash}{\ensuremath \slash\hspace{-0.20cm} \mathfrak{d}\/}
      \newcommand{\Dslash}{\ensuremath \raisebox{0.025cm}{\slash}\hspace{-0.32cm} D}
      \newcommand{\dslash}{\not{\hbox{\kern-2pt $\partial$}}}
      %\newcommand{\Dslash}{\not{\hbox{\kern-4pt $D$}}}
      \newcommand{\pslash}{\not{\hbox{\kern-2.3pt $p$}}}
      %
      %
       \newtoks\nslashfraction
       \nslashfraction={.13}
       \newcommand{\nslash}[1]{\setbox0\hbox{$ #1 $}
         \setbox0\hbox to \the\nslashfraction\wd0{\hss \box0}/\box0 }
      
      % EXAMPLE OF HOW TO USE IT
      % $\nslash D$
      % {\nslashfraction={.075} $\nslash{\cal A}$}
      % $\nslash B$
      % $\nslash a$
      % {\nslashfraction={.09} $\nslash p$}
      % $\nslash q$
      
      % Math symbols
      
      %\newcommand{\ip}{{=\!\!\! \mid}}                  %2-d plus vector index
      
      \newcommand{\plpl}{\raise-2pt\hbox{$\raise3pt\hbox{$_+$}\hskip-6.67pt\raise0.0pt
        \hbox{$^+$}\hskip 0.01pt$}}
      \newcommand{\mimi}{\raise-2pt\hbox{$\raise3pt\hbox{$_-$}\hskip-6.67pt\raise0.0pt
        \hbox{$^-$}\hskip 0.01pt$}}
      
      \newcommand{\bo}{\raise-1mm\hbox{\Large$\Box$}}              % D'Alembertian
      %\newcommand{\cbo}{\Sc}                                         % curly "
      \newcommand{\pa}{\partial}                                       % curly d
      \newcommand{\de}{\nabla}                                         % del
      \newcommand{\dell}{\bigtriangledown}                             % hi ho the dairy-o
      \newcommand{\su}{\sum}                                           % summation
      \newcommand{\pr}{\prod}                                          % product
      \newcommand{\niff}{\Longleftrightarrow}                           %
      \newcommand{\dg}{\sp\dagger}                                     % hermitian conjugate
      \newcommand{\ddg}{\sp\ddagger}                                   % double dagger
      \newcommand{\trans}[1]{{#1}^{\ensuremath{\mathsf{T}}}}           % transpose
      \newcommand{\cc}[1]{{#1}^{\ast}}                            % complex conjugate
      \newcommand{\hc}[1]{{#1}^{\dg}}                            % hermitian conjugate
      \newcommand{\conj}[1]{{#1}^{+}}                            % hermitian conjugate
      \newcommand{\ltap}{\raisebox{-.4ex}{\rlap{$\sim$}} \raisebox{.4ex}{$<$}}   % $}}   % > or ~
      \newcommand{\nTH}{{\raise.2ex\hbox{$\displaystyle \bigodot$}\mskip-4.7mu \llap H \;}}
      \newcommand{\face}{{\raise.2ex\hbox{$\displaystyle \bigodot$}\mskip-2.2mu \llap {$\ddot
              \smile$}}}                                      % happy face
                              % Also:  \int  \oint              integral, contour
                              %        \hbar                    h bar
                              %        \infty                   infinity
                              %        \sqrt                    square root
                              %        \pm  \mp                 plus or minus
                              %        \cdot  \cdots            centered dot(s)
                              %        \oplus  \otimes          group theory
                              %        \equiv                   equivalence
                              %        \sim                     ~
                              %        \approx                  approximately =
                              %        \propto                  funny alpha
                              %        \ne                      not =
                              %        \le \ge                   or =
                              %        \{  \}                   braces
                              %        \to  \gets               -> ,
      \newcommand{\bra}[1]{\left\langle #1\right|}              %
      \newcommand{\VEV}[1]{\left\langle #1\right\rangle}        %
      \newcommand{\ev}[1]{\left\langle #1\right\rangle}        %
      \newcommand{\mv}[2]{\langle#1|#2\rangle}                  %
      \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\left\langle #1 , #2\right\rangle}    %
      \newcommand{\ip}[2]{\left\langle #1 | #2\right\rangle}    %
      \newcommand{\ipop}[3]{\left\langle#1\left|#2\right|#3\right\rangle} %
      \newcommand{\abs}[1]{\left| #1\right|}                    % | |
      \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\left\lVert#1\right\rVert}
      \newcommand{\comm}[2]{\left[\,#1,#2\,\right]}                 % [ , ]
      \newcommand{\acomm}[2]{\left\{\,#1,#2\,\right\}}              % { , }
      \newcommand{\leftrightarrowfill}{$\mathsurround=0pt \mathord\leftarrow \mkern-6mu
              \cleaders\hbox{$\mkern-2mu \mathord- \mkern-2mu$}\hfill
              \mkern-6mu \mathord\rightarrow$}
      \newcommand{\dvec}[1]{\vbox{\ialign{##\crcr
              \leftrightarrowfill\crcr\noalign{\kern-1pt\nointerlineskip}
              $\hfil\displaystyle{#1}\hfil$\crcr}}}           %  accent
      \newcommand{\dt}[1]{{\buildrel {\hbox{\LARGE .}} \over {#1}}}     % dot-over for sp/sb
      \newcommand{\dtt}[1]{{\buildrel \bullet \over {#1}}}              % alternate "
      \newcommand{\der}[1]{\frac{\pa}{\pa{#1}}}                % partial derivative
      \newcommand{\fder}[1]{\frac{\delta}{\delta {#1}}}        % functional derivative
                      % Also math accents:    \bar
                      %                       \check
                      %                       \hat
                      %                       \tilde
                      %                       \acute
                      %                       \grave
                      %                       \breve
                      %                       \dot    (over)
                      %                       \ddot   (umlaut)
                      %                       \vec    (vector)
      
      % Math stuff with more than one argument
      \newcommand{\largefrac}[2]{\hbox{\large{${\frac{{#1}}{{#2}}}$}}}
      \newcommand{\ha}{\frac{1}{2}}                           % 1/2
      \newcommand{\tha}{\tfrac{1}{2}}
      \newcommand{\sfrac}[2]{{\vphantom1\smash{\lower.5ex\hbox{\small$#1$}}\over
              \vphantom1\smash{\raise.4ex\hbox{\small$#2$}}}} % alternate fraction
      \newcommand{\bfrac}[2]{{\vphantom1\smash{\lower.5ex\hbox{$#1$}}\over
              \vphantom1\smash{\raise.3ex\hbox{$#2$}}}}       % "
      \newcommand{\afrac}[2]{{\vphantom1\smash{\lower.5ex\hbox{$#1$}}\over#2}}    % "
      \newcommand{\partder}[2]{\frac{\partial #1}{\partial #2}} % partial derivative of
      \newcommand{\parvar}[2]{\frac{\delta #1}{\delta #2}}               % variation of
      \newcommand{\secder}[3]{\frac{\partial^2 #1}{\partial #2 \partial #3}}  % second "
      \newcommand{\on}[2]{\mathop{\null#2}\limits^{#1}}               % arbitrary accent
      \newcommand{\bvec}[1]{\on{\leftarrow}{#1}}                  % backward vector accent
      \newcommand{\oover}[1]{\on{\circ}{#1}}                              % circle accent
      
      % Calligraphic letters
      
      \newcommand{\ca}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{A}}}
      \newcommand{\cb}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{B}}}
      \newcommand{\cac}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{C}}}
      \newcommand{\cd}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{D}}}
      \newcommand{\ce}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{E}}}
      \newcommand{\cf}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{F}}}
      \newcommand{\cg}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{G}}}
      \newcommand{\ch}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{H}}}
      \newcommand{\ci}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{I}}}
      \newcommand{\cj}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{J}}}
      %\newcommand{\ck}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{K}}}
      \newcommand{\cl}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{L}}}
      \newcommand{\cm}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{M}}}
      \newcommand{\cn}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{N}}}
      \newcommand{\co}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{O}}}
      \newcommand{\cp}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{P}}}
      \newcommand{\cq}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{Q}}}
      \newcommand{\car}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{R}}}
      \newcommand{\cs}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{S}}}
      \newcommand{\ct}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{T}}}
      \newcommand{\cu}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{U}}}
      \newcommand{\cv}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{V}}}
      \newcommand{\cw}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{W}}}
      \newcommand{\cx}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{X}}}
      \newcommand{\cy}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{Y}}}
      \newcommand{\cz}{\ensuremath{\mathcal{Z}}}
    • % Fonts Definitions
      
      \newfont{\go}{ygoth.tfm scaled 1200}                   % gothic font (usual)
      \newfont{\biggo}{ygoth.tfm scaled 3583}                % gothic font (Big Sized - Huge)
      \newfont{\rope}{cmsy10 scaled 1200}                    % font with rope
      \newfont{\fib}{cmfi10 scaled 1200}
      \newfont{\bigfib}{cmfi10 scaled 3583}
      \newfont{\funny}{cmff10 scaled 1200}
      \newfont{\bigfunny}{cmff10 scaled 3583}
      \newfont{\pbk}{pbkd.tfm scaled 1200}
      
      \newfont{\rsfs}{rsfs10.tfm scaled 1200}
      \newfont{\bigrsfs}{rsfs10.tfm scaled 2000}
      
      \newfont{\testea}{cmfrak.tfm}
      \newfont{\testeb}{dcfrak.tfm}
      \newfont{\testec}{schwell.tfm}
      \newfont{\tested}{yfrak.tfm}
      \newfont{\testef}{yswab.tfm}
      \newfont{\bigtestef}{yswab.tfm scaled 3583}
      \newfont{\testeg}{yinit.tfm}
      \newfont{\testeh}{yinitdd.tfm}
      \newfont{\testei}{suet14.tfm}
      \newfont{\testej}{pzdr.tfm}
      \newfont{\testek}{pzcmi.tfm}
      %\newfont{\testel}{stmary10.tfm}
      \newfont{\testem}{ccr10.tfm}
      \newfont{\testen}{eurm10.tfm}
      \newfont{\testeq}{euex10.tfm}
      \newfont{\testeo}{wncyr10.tfm}
      \newfont{\testep}{msam10.tfm}
      
      % Fonts
      
      \newcommand{\Go}[1]{\ensuremath{\go #1}}      % Gothic for single characters in equations
      \newcommand{\Sc}[1]{\ensuremath{\sc #1}}      % script for single characters in equations
      \newcommand{\Sf}[1]{\ensuremath{\mathsf{#1}}} % sans serif for single characters in equations
      \newcommand{\kcl}{\ensuremath{\rope \char'170}}        % left-handed rope
      \newcommand{\kcr}{\ensuremath{\rope \char'170}}        % right-handed rope
      \newcommand{\ktl}{\ensuremath{\rope \char'170}}        % top end for left-handed rope
      \newcommand{\ktr}{\ensuremath{\rope \char'170}}        % " right
      \newcommand{\kbl}{\ensuremath{\rope \char'170}}        % " bottom left
      \newcommand{\kbr}{\ensuremath{\rope \char'170}}        % " right
                              % Also:  \rm      Roman (default for text)
                              %        \bf      boldface
                              %        \it      italic
                              %        \mit     math italic (default for equations)
                              %        \sl      slanted
                              %        \em      emphatic
                              %        \tt      typewriter
                              % and sizes:    \tiny
                              %               \scriptsize
                              %               \footnotesize
                              %               \small
                              %               \normalsize
                              %               \large
                              %               \Large
                              %               \LARGE
                              %               \huge
                              %               \Huge
      
      % Underline for text or math
      
      \catcode`@=11
      \newcommand{\un}[1]{\relax\ifmmode\@@underline#1\else
              $\@@underline{\hbox{#1}}$\relax\fi}
      \catcode`@=12
      
      % Accents and foreign (in text):
      
      \let\under=\b                   % bar-under (but see \un above)
      \let\ced=\c                     % cedilla
      \let\du=\d                      % dot-under
      \let\um=\H                      % Hungarian umlaut
      \let\sll=\l                     % slashed (suppressed) l (Polish)
      \let\Sll=\L                     % " L
      \let\slo=\o                     % slashed o (Scandinavian)
      \let\Slo=\O                     % " O
      \let\tie=\t                     % tie-after (semicircle connecting two letters)
      \let\br=\u                      % breve
                      % Also: \`        grave
                      %       \'        acute
                      %       \v        hacek (check)
                      %       \^        circumflex (hat)
                      %       \~        tilde (squiggle)
                      %       \=        macron (bar-over)
                      %       \.        dot (over)
                      %       \"        umlaut (dieresis)
                      %       \aa \AA   A-with-circle (Scandinavian)
                      %       \ae \AE   ligature (Latin & Scandinavian)
                      %       \oe \OE   " (French)
                      %       \ss       es-zet (German sharp s)
                      %       \$  \#  \&  \%  \pounds  {\it\&}  \dots
      
      % Colors
      \newcommand{\cyan}{\textcolor{Cyan}}
      \newcommand{\red}{\textcolor{Red}}
      \newcommand{\blue}{\textcolor{Blue}}
      \newcommand{\black}{\textcolor{Black}}
      \newcommand{\white}{\textcolor{White}}
      \newcommand{\green}{\textcolor{Green}}
      \newcommand{\yellow}{\textcolor{Yellow}}
      \newcommand{\magenta}{\textcolor{Magenta}}
      \newcommand{\greenyellow}{\textcolor{GreenYellow}}
      \newcommand{\goldenrod}{\textcolor{Goldenrod}}
      \newcommand{\dandelion}{\textcolor{Dandelion}}
      \newcommand{\apricot}{\textcolor{Apricot}}
      \newcommand{\peach}{\textcolor{Peach}}
      \newcommand{\melon}{\textcolor{Melon}}
      \newcommand{\yelloworange}{\textcolor{YellowOrange}}
      \newcommand{\burntorange}{\textcolor{BurntOrange}}
      \newcommand{\bittersweet}{\textcolor{Bittersweet}}
      \newcommand{\redorange}{\textcolor{RedOrange}}
      \newcommand{\mahogany}{\textcolor{Mahogany}}
      \newcommand{\maroon}{\textcolor{Maroon}}
      \newcommand{\brickred}{\textcolor{BrickRed}}
      \newcommand{\orangered}{\textcolor{OrangeRed}}
      \newcommand{\rubinered}{\textcolor{RubineRed}}
      \newcommand{\wildstrawberry}{\textcolor{WildStrawberry}}
      \newcommand{\salmon}{\textcolor{Salmon}}
      \newcommand{\carnationpink}{\textcolor{CarnationPink}}
      \newcommand{\viloetred}{\textcolor{ViloetRed}}
      \newcommand{\rhodamine}{\textcolor{Rhodamine}}
      \newcommand{\mulberry}{\textcolor{Mulberry}}
      \newcommand{\redviolet}{\textcolor{RedViolet}}
      \newcommand{\fuchsia}{\textcolor{Fuchsia}}
      \newcommand{\lavender}{\textcolor{Lavender}}
      \newcommand{\thistle}{\textcolor{Thistle}}
      \newcommand{\orchid}{\textcolor{Orchid}}
      \newcommand{\darkorchid}{\textcolor{DarkOrchid}}
      \newcommand{\purple}{\textcolor{Purple}}
      \newcommand{\plum}{\textcolor{Plum}}
      \newcommand{\violet}{\textcolor{Violet}}
      \newcommand{\royalpurple}{\textcolor{RoyalPurple}}
      \newcommand{\blueviolet}{\textcolor{BlueViolet}}
      \newcommand{\periwinkle}{\textcolor{Periwinkle}}
      \newcommand{\cadetblue}{\textcolor{CadetBlue}}
      \newcommand{\cornflowerblue}{\textcolor{CornflowerBlue}}
      \newcommand{\midnightblue}{\textcolor{MidnightBlue}}
      \newcommand{\navyblue}{\textcolor{NavyBlue}}
      \newcommand{\royalblue}{\textcolor{RoyalBlue}}
      \newcommand{\cerulean}{\textcolor{Cerulean}}
      \newcommand{\processblue}{\textcolor{ProcessBlue}}
      \newcommand{\skyblue}{\textcolor{SkyBlue}}
      \newcommand{\turquoise}{\textcolor{Turquoise}}
      \newcommand{\tealblue}{\textcolor{TealBlue}}
      \newcommand{\aquamarine}{\textcolor{Aquamarine}}
      \newcommand{\bluegreen}{\textcolor{BlueGreen}}
      \newcommand{\emerald}{\textcolor{Emerald}}
      \newcommand{\junglegreen}{\textcolor{JungleGreen}}
      \newcommand{\seagreen}{\textcolor{SeaGreen}}
      \newcommand{\forestgreen}{\textcolor{ForestGreen}}
      \newcommand{\pinegreen}{\textcolor{PineGreen}}
      \newcommand{\limegreen}{\textcolor{LimeGreen}}
      \newcommand{\yellowgreen}{\textcolor{YellowGreen}}
      \newcommand{\springgreen}{\textcolor{springgreen}}
      \newcommand{\olivegreen}{\textcolor{OliveGreen}}
      \newcommand{\rawsiena}{\textcolor{RawSienna}}
      \newcommand{\sepia}{\textcolor{Sepia}}
      \newcommand{\brown}{\textcolor{Brow}}
      \newcommand{\tanned}{\textcolor{Tan}}
      \newcommand{\gray}{\textcolor{Gray}}
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